Benedict XVI . born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger; on 16 April 1927 he
served as pope of the Roman Catholic Church Vatican II from 2005 to
2013. He was elected pope on 19 April 2005. He was inaugurated on 24
April 2005 and resigned from the holy office on 28 February 2013.
Pope Benedict's election occurred in a papal conclave following the
death of Pope John Paul II.
He was ordained as a priest in 1951 in his native Bavaria, Ratzinger established himself as a highly regarded university theologian by the late 1950s and was appointed a full professor in 1958.
After a long career as an academic and professor of theology at several German universities, he was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1977, an unusual promotion for someone with little pastoral experience. In 1981, he was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, one of the most important dicasteries of the Roman Curia.
From 2002 until his election as Pope, he was also Dean of the College of Cardinals, and as such, the primus inter pares among the Cardinals. Prior to becoming Pope, he was "a major figure on the Vatican stage for a quarter of a century"; he had an influence "second to none when it came to setting church priorities and directions" as one of John Paul II's closest confidants. Who he even beatified him in 2011 at St Peters Basilica, Rome. In 2012 our beloved Superior General / President. Titular Archbishop David Bell was granted an audience after years of meetings with Vatican II curia to meet His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI.
On 11 February 2013, Pope Benedict XVI announced his resignation in a speech in Latin before the cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age. His resignation became effective on 28 February 2013.
He is the first pope to resign since Pope Gregory XII in 1415, and the first to do so on his own initiative since Pope Celestine V in 1294.
He was originally a liberal theologian, but adopted conservative views after 1968. His prolific writings defend traditional Catholic doctrine and values. During his papacy, Benedict XVI advocated a return to fundamental Christian values to counter the increased secularisation of many Western countries. He views relativism's denial of objective truth, and the denial of moral truths in particular, as the central problem of the 21st century. He taught the importance of both the Roman Catholic Church and an understanding of God's redemptive love. Pope Benedict also revived a number of traditions, including elevating the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position.
strengthened the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and
art, promoted the use of Latin, and reintroduced traditional papal
garments, for which reason he was called "the pope of
aesthetics". He has been described as "the main
intellectual force in the Church" since the mid-1980s.